Chronology of the GCTC Events





Chief of the Air Force approved the staff and organizational structure of the Air Force Cosmonaut Training Center numbering 189 persons (70 military men, 20 cosmonauts-listeners and 99 manual and office workers). The Center was established in accordance with the resolutions of the CPSU Central Committee ( CPSU) and USSR Council of Ministers (CM USSR) No. 22-10 of 01.05.59, and No 569-264 of 05.22.59.


Air Force commander-in-chief of the USSR appointed Yevgeny Anatolievich Karpov as Chief of the Cosmonaut Training Center (CTC)


The first Soviet cosmonaut corps was formed (1960. Air Force Group number 1). In the corps were enlisted: Ivan Nikolaevich Anikeev, Pavel Ivanovich Beliaev, Valentin Vasilievich Bondarenko, Valery Fedorovich Bykovsky, Valentin Stepanovich Varlamov, Boris Valentinovich Volynov, Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin; Victor Vasilievich Gorbatko.; Dmitri Alekseevich Zaikin, Anatoly Yakovlevich Kartashov, Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov, Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov; Grigory Grigorievich Nelubov; Andrian Grigorievich Nikolayev; Pavel Romanovich Popovich; Mars Zakirovich Rafikov; German Stepanovich Titov, Valentin Ignatievich Filatov, Yevgeny Vasilievich Khrunov, Georgi Stepanovich Shonin.


The first training session for basic space training with the first group of candidates appointed as cosmonaut-listeners was carried out.


Air Force Commander confirmed Regulation of the Air Force CTC, which determined that the Air Force Cosmonaut Training Center should operate independently, be a part of the Air Force and Air Force Chief of CTC must obey to deputy commander of the Air Force for combat training through Chief of Air Force Aviation medicine.


By Air Force Commander’s directive No.375 010 of.12.24.60, a new staff was enacted in the Air Force CTC. Consequently for the first time in the Center such subdivisions as «cosmonaut corps» and «cosmonaut-listener corps» appeared. The total number of the Centre staff was increased.


Air Force Commander, K.A. Vershinin signed an order appointing the commission to receive the final examinations of the first six cosmonaut-listeners (captain V.F. Bykovsky, captain A.G. Nikolaev, captain P.R. Popovich, lieutenant Yu.A. Gagarin, lieutenant G.G. Nelubov, lieutenant G.S. Titov). Lieutenant-general of Aviation, N.P. Kamanin was appointed as Chairman of the committee, and from November 1960 he led overall operations on space exploration, carried out by the Air Force.

17 -18.01.1961

The first group of six cosmonauts (mentioned above) passed the exam on readiness to fly in a Vostok spacecraft  and on January 25, 1961 Air Force Commander Vershinin confirmed the report of examination commission and signed the order to transfer the first six cosmonauts to the permanent staff of the CTC Air Force.


Air Force Commander, K.A. Vershinin, signed an order consolidating an aircraft TU-104 to CTC, equipped for flying in weightlessness, and the order of the tests in (Red Banner State Research &Test Institute) of two IL-14, equipped with HF - band finder to locate the landing vehicles and cosmonauts.


The Commission, chaired by N.P. Kamanin took exams of the second group of listeners, the cosmonauts, which included E.V. Khrunov, V.M. Komarov, P.G. Beliaev, B.V. Volynov, G.S. Shonin, V.V. Gorbatko, M.Z. Rafikov, A.A. Leonov, V.I. Filatov, I.N. Anikeev, D.A. Zaikin.


Air Force Commander Vershinin signed certifications of pilot-cosmonauts Yu.A. Gagarin, G.S. Titov, G.G. Nelubov. He also confirmed the report of final examinations and signed the order of enlistment to the cosmonaut corps the following candidates: E.V. Khrunov, V.M. Komarov, P.I. Beliaev, B.V. Volynov, G.S. Shonin, V.V. Gorbatko, A A. Leonov and I.N. Anikeev.


The launch of boost rocket 8K72 (later called Vostok), which delivered a Soviet Vostok spacecraft into orbit, was implemented. The world's first manned flight into space was performed. The launch of the world's first manned spacecraft was led by S.P. Korolev, A.S. Kirillov, L.A. Voskresenski. The spacecraft was piloted by the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. Backup: German Titov. Reserve cosmonaut: Grigory Nelyubov. The spacecraft such as Vostok-3A of series No. 3 was launched into orbit with the following parameters: orbital inclination - 64.95 deg.; Orbit time - 89.34 min. Minimum distance from the Earth (perigee) - 181 km, maximum distance from the Earth (apogee) - 327 km. Spaceship mass - 4725 kg. Launch mass of the boost-rocket - 287 tons. The flight lasted 1 hour and 48 minutes. After one orbit around the Earth the descent module of the spacecraft landed on the Soviet Union territory. At an altitude of several kilometers from the Earth the cosmonaut ejected himself from the descent module and using parachute he landed nearby the descent module. The landing occurred at 10 hours and 55 minutes (Moscow time) on the shore of the Volga near Smelovka village of Ternovski district of Saratov region.


In early 1962, N.P. Kamanin reported to Air Force command about necessity for reorganization and expansion of Cosmonaut Training Center. The command was proposed to increase personnel of CTC, which included 80 cosmonaut posts, to subordinate combined Aviation Regiment to the Center for cosmonaut training, to withdraw CTC from Air Force Institute of Aerospace Medicine (), making it an independent organization subordinated directly to the command of the Air Force. Air Force Deputy Commander Colonel-General F.A. Agaltsov encouraged these proposals.


Defense Secretary of USSR R.Ya. Malinovskiy published an order of selection of 60 persons for the Soviet cosmonaut corps, including 5 women.


A group of female cosmonauts was formed in the Soviet Union (1962 A group of female cosmonauts number 1). The group consisted of: Janna Dmitrievna Erkina, Tatiana Dmitrievna Kuznetsova, Valentina Leonidovna Ponomareva, Irina Baianovna Solovieva, Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova.


By the order of Air Force Commander the Center was withdrawn from the authority of Chief of State Research & Test Institute of Aerospace Medicine ( ) and was subordinated to Air Force Deputy Head of combat training.


In accordance with Air Force Commander directive No. 328 243, dated 11.19.62, the Center was transferred to a new staff which was provided by the presence of two cosmonaut corps and the corps of cosmonaut-listeners.


Resolution of the Council of Ministers «Development and creation of centrifuge for scientific research on cosmonaut training».


In the Soviet Union a new group of cosmonauts was selected (1963, Air Force Group number 2). The group included: Yuri Petrovich Artukhin, Eduard Ivanovich Buinovskiy, Lev Vasilievich Vorobiev, Anatoly Fedorovich Voronov, Aleksei Alexandrovich Gubarev, Vladislav Ivanovich Guliaev, Lev Stepanovich Demin, Grigoriy Timofeevich Dobrovolskiy, Vitaliy Mikhailovich Zholobov, Petr Ivanovich Kolodin, Eduard Pavlovich Kugno, Anatoliy Petrovich Kuklin, Alexander Nikolaevich Matinchenko, Anatoliy Vasilievich Filipchenko, Vladimir Alexandrovich Shatalov.


Mikhail Petrovichg Odintsov was appointed as new Chief of Cosmonaut Training Center.


Air Marshal S.I. Rudenko ordered to prepare a plan of building of cosmonaut city for 1000 residents next to CTC.


A group to be trained for a group space flight of 8 - 10 days was formed in the Cosmonaut Training Center. The cosmonauts Pavel Belyaev, Boris Volynov, Victor Gorbatko, Dmitry Zaikin, Vladimir Komarov, Alexei Leonov, Yevgeny Khrunov, Georgi Shonin started training for the flight.


Nikolai Fedorovich Kuznetsov was appointed as the new Chief of Cosmonaut Training Center.


Air Force Cosmonaut Training Center was renamed into the 1st Cosmonaut training center.


Pursuant to the directive No. 1059540 dated 03.18.67 of the General Staff of the Air Force, by order No. 0218 of Air Force Commander, the 70th separate test -training aviation regiment of special appointment basing on Chkalovsky  aerodrome  was established.


During a training flight near the village Novoselovo of Kirzhach district, Vladimir region the world's first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin died in a plane crash. Along with him instructor Vladimir Seregin died in the crash.


In order to signify the highest respect and memorialize the cosmonaut number 1, by Resolution of CC CPSU and CM USSR the Cosmonaut Training Center was named after Yu.A. Gagarin.


In accordance with Resolution of CC CPSU and CM USSR No. 932-331 dated 11.28.68 and with the order No. 003 of USSR Ministry of Defense dated 01.07.69 (directives No.410 510 dated 02.28.69 of the General Staff, and Air Force General Staff), the 1st CTC by Yu. A. Gagarin was reorganized into the 1st Scientific & Research CTC by Yu.A. Gagarin with the rights and status of the first category of SRI ().


Pursuant to the resolutions of CC CPSU and CM USSR dated 02.17.76, and 11.21.77, to the decision of the Presidium of the USSR Council of Ministers Commission on military-industrial issues No. 349 dated 12.18.76, by joint decision of MOM (Ministry General Engineering), MA (Ministry of Aircraft Production) and USSR Ministry of Defense a group of test pilots for the flight tests of Buran spacecraft was formed and basic cosmonaut training of the group members was carried out. This group consisted of test pilots of MA – I.P. Volk, A.S. Levchenko, A.V. Shchukin, R.A.A. Stankiavichus, O.G. Kononenko, and test pilots of the USSR Ministry of Defense I.I. Bachurin, V.M. Chirkin, A.S. Boroday, V.E. Mosolov, A.M. Sokovyh and N. Sh. Sattarov


In 1985-1987 cosmonaut training was carried out with another group of test pilots of Flight Research Institute of MA (Ministry of Aircraft Production) and the Air Force State Research &Test Institute: V.M. Afanasiev, A.P. Artsebarskiy, G.M. Manakov, V.V. Zabobolotskiy, U.N. Sultanov, .. Tobloev, S.N. Tresviatskiy, Yu.P. Sheffer.


Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 478 from May 15, 1995, Moscow, «Creation of Russian State Scientific & Research CTC by Yu.A. Gagarin».


In 2008, the order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1435-r dated October 1, 2008, the Center received a new status - the State Organization «Yu.A. Gagarin Research & Test Cosmonaut Training Centre». Currently, Yu.A. Gagarin Research & Test Cosmonaut Training Centre is administered by Russian Space Agency.


It was decided to establish a united cosmonaut corps of Federal Space Agency based in CTC. In accordance with the order 197 of the Head of Russian Space Agency dated December 7, 2010 in order to improve selection and cosmonaut training and to provide a coordinated state policy on manned space flights, from January 1, 2011 the united cosmonaut corps of Federal Space Agency was established on the basis of the State Organization «Yu.A. Gagarin Research & Test Cosmonaut Training Centre».